Bletchley Park.

The estate of Bletchley Park is most famously recognised as the place where most of the German Enigma code was cracked in World War 2.

It was originally a farmhouse which was extended to become the mansion it is today by London financier Sir Herbert Samuel Leon and remained his family home until the death of his wife in 1937, then the estate fell into the hands of property developers. There was a growing need for housing space due to the fact that London was grossly overpopulated, and so this must have been like Christmas for the developers! The buildings which made up the estate were going to be demolished, that is, until war broke out and Bletchley Park became one of the most important places of the time.

When Hitler was gaining power towards the end of the 1930’s London was not a safe place to be, and so the Government code-breakers needed a new home. Bletchley Park turned out to be a perfect place for this very need, it was situated at the center of major road, rail and communications networks in the UK. In 1939 the first code-breakers began moving in.

Among this wealth of history, the architecture of this site can often be forgotten. This was originally going to be a country estate, and nothing more. Who was to know that it would become such an influential place of knowledge, history and eventually become the main factor in winning the war?

The land was formerly apart of the Manor of Eaton. The main mansion itself is a great example of Victorian architecture, with a multitude of bay windows and designs in the walls created by the placement of different coloured bricks. The style of the buildings on the estate as a whole range between a mix of Victorian Gothic, Tudor and Dutch Baroque. The architecture was often commented upon by anyone who worked there, or any visitors to the site.

It is still a place which triggers feelings of immense awe, even today it is preserved and visitors are welcome to delve into the history which is held there. There is even talk of the buildings which surround the mansion being renovated to their former war-time state so that you can get a real feeling of what it was like to work there in those times.

There was a style of architecture which was beginning to emerge before the war, called ‘the international style’. This is the style in which the outhouses surrounding the mansion were thought to have been built-in, even if they were built quickly to house the different departments of the code-breakers. The architects who were drafted in to design these buildings may have been working on this style around the time the war began, but there is a certain irony which the war brought about. This style was supposed to be based upon the creation of a ‘new world’ envisioned by people all over the world, a world without borders or barriers after world war one. But with world war two came the end of that vision in a sense. Barriers, borders and metal fences needed to be brought up rather quickly and thus, before it had even really begun, the international style movement was brought to a halt.

We will write more about the international style another time.

Written by Jade Turney – Building Tectonics Ltd.

Doubling up.

This project included the transformation of a Victorian house, much like the ones you’d be likely to see in Bedford, and the proposed side extension changed this single fronted house into a double fronted house, therefore doubling the living space. Victorian houses were built to be quite small and compact, and so we knew that the new designs for the house still had to fit in with the aesthetics of the Victorian exterior.

This may sound very simple, but care over the design of the internal arrangement is essential for it to work, as any architect would know.

Before…

PIT front ele ext best

After…

PIT DSC00090

Written by Tony Keller – Building Tectonics Ltd.

 

Tale of Two Towns

With two of our main areas of operation being Milton Keynes and Bedford, we find it interesting to look at the differences in the type of work the two areas bring. We know that Milton Keynes has a large quantity of new houses, the town itself was only founded fairly recently in 1967, as opposed to other towns in the UK such as Bedford which is predominantly made up of Victorian buildings.

The two areas have buildings which are built-in a very different way. The walls on a Victorian building would have needed to have been thicker to withstand the winter chills, they didn’t have the luxury of central heating!

front_edited-2

The roof on a Victorian house would have been slanted or tiles on battens which would have been supported on a timber roof structure of rafters and ceiling joists. Purlins and struts would then usually be put in place to strengthen the roof by transferring the loads down onto internal load bearing walls. These walls would be corbelled out under the ground to distribute the load to the ground below. There will have been no roofing felt under the roof covering, no insulation would have been installed and the ceilings would have been of lath and plaster – hence the need for fires.

Your typical modern house would now have roof trusses instead of the timber roof structure described above and it would have cavity walls originally developed to stop rain from getting in, but it now helps to accommodate thermal insulation.

In addition to the roof trusses and the cavity wall, the other main structural difference between typical houses in Bedford and Milton Keynes is the concrete foundation. It’s often forgotten that Victorians didn’t have concrete as we know it today. The closest they came to our sort of concrete was lime mortar used between bricks and also interestingly as a floor in the scullery or kitchen part of the house. The remainder of the ground floor would be a suspended timber floor, much the same as the first floor, but with the earth below.

PRH (11)

Most Victorian homes had a fireplace in most rooms, as it was the only way to keep warm, and the skyline in Bedford gives testimony to this fact as every fireplace would have needed a chimney pot. Of course what we would not expect to see now on the Bedford skylines is the smog that lingered over most Victorian cities during winter.

These differences do have an impact on the way in which you can extend and modernise your houses, the biggest example of where the type of house has a large impact being a loft conversion. Some specialist companies would advise you that your roof can’t be converted, but we believe that by understanding the existing structure there is always a way. The only instance we can think of, where it probably wouldn’t be possible is if the space in the roof isn’t big enough to stand in. Many of the Victorian houses in Bedford have quite a low rood pitch, meaning that if you wanted more space then extending may be the better option, but this doesn’t mean you should discount the idea of a loft conversion, you should see what’s possible before you make any definitive decisions as to what you want to do.

Extending narrow Victorian houses so that you don’t reduce natural light to your neighbour’s home can be a challenge. One word of caution, modern concrete foundations will be expected to go much deeper than the brick footing mentioned earlier and there can be a serious risk of destabilizing adjacent foundations. You really must find out if you need to give notice in the proper manner to your neighbours if you are excavating near their building.

house7_edited-3

Victorian houses will often have had bay windows with slanted sides and a flat front (these types are called ‘canted bay windows’). A single storey bay window would have often had its own slanted roof, which made the window an eye-catching feature. For the windows which didn’t need to look so flashy, a ‘sash window’ would suffice. It’s details like this which make living in such a house in a historic town such a joy, it also makes it even more worthwhile investing in the house improvements.

Working on houses from any era can be a challenge, but Victorian houses were built to be compact with small back gardens and often a low roof so there isn’t really a lot of room to play with. When you get the improvement right, whatever it may be, the house can be given a new lease on life and another generation of people can be brought up within walking distance of Bedford town centre and therefore help to preserve our green fields, cut down on transport and travel in our daily lives and sustain an established neighbourhood.

Written by Jade Turney – Building Tectonics Ltd.

Victorian extension – Bringing new things to an old classic

Like many Victorian houses, what this home offered in charm and atmosphere it lacked in living & family space adjacent to the kitchen. This was a problem which needed resolving via an applicable extension.

Before

We designed an extension that included folding sliding doors to open the interior space to the garden a little, as well as adding light to the rooms. A small utility space was also provided to hide away the less visually attractive clutter.

DSC03521  DSC03523

 

Written by Tony Keller – Building Tectonics Ltd.